Influence of biomechanical models on joint kinematics and kinetics in baseball pitching
Xavier Gasparutto, Erik van der Graaff, Frans van der Helm, Dirkjan Veeger
In baseball pitching, biomechanical parameters have been linked to ball velocity and potential injury risk. However, although the features of a biomechanical model have a significant influence on the kinematics and kinetics of a motion, this influence have not been assessed for pitching. The aim of this study was to evaluate the choice of the trunk and shoulder features, by comparing two models using the same input. The models differed in thoraco-humeral joint definition (moving or fixed with the thorax), joint centre estimation, values of the inertial parameters and computational framework. One professional pitcher participated in the study. We found that the different features of the biomechanical models have a substantial influence on the kinematics and kinetics of the pitchers. With a fixed thoraco-humeral joint the peak average thorax angular velocity was delayed and underestimated by 17% and the shoulder internal rotation velocity was overestimated by 7%. The use of a thoraco-humeral joint fixed to the thorax will lead to an overestimation of the rotational power at the shoulder and will neglect the power produced by the forward and upward translation of the shoulder girdle. These findings have direct implications for the interpretation of shoulder muscle contributions to the pitch.
Knee Angle and Stride Length in Association with Ball Speed in Youth Baseball Pitchers
Bart van Trigt, Wouter Schallig, Erik van der Graaff, Marco Hoozemans, Dirkjan Veeger
Elite Athlete Motor and Loading Actions on The Upper Limb in Baseball Pitching
Xavier Gasparutto, Erik van der Graaff, Dirkjan Veeger
Keywords: pitching, baseball, joint loading, joint moment, elbow, shoulder
The role of pelvis an thorax rotation velocity in baseball pitching.
Keywords: biomechanics; kinematics; performance; pitching; separation
Longitudinal changes in shoulder ROM and strength in association with ball-throwing speed in elite youth baseball pitchers.
Keywords: baseball; pitching; performance; screening; prospective study
Shoulder joint velocity during fastball pitching baseball.
Keywords: baseball; pitching; upper limb; shoulder; velocity
Asymmetry and evolution over a one-year period of the upward rotation of the scapula in youth baseball pitchers
Erik van der Graaff , Bengt Kom, Femke van Dis, Xavier Gasparutto, Marco Hoozemans & Dirkjan Veeger
The pitching motion is an asymmetric action by which coordination of scapular rotation in the dominant arm might be affected in time and in comparison with the non-dominant arm. The study aimed to compare asymmetry and the evolution of scapular upward rotation over a one-year period. Data were collected twice, before and after a one-year period, from 92 participants (age = 15.1 SD 1.4 years, body height = 177.3 SD 10.9 cm, body weight 69.2 SD 14.5 kg). Scapular motion was tracked at different glenohumeral angles of elevation in the scapular plane: anatomical position (0°), 45°, 90° and 135°. Scapular upward rotation was calculated as the angle between the spinae scapula and the spine. Scapular upward rotation of the dominant arm was 5.1° (95% CI: 2.1°−8.1°) more compared to the non-dominant arm. Age group or glenohumeral angles of elevation did not affect this difference. Scapular upward rotation of the dominant arm decreased 1.9° (95% CI: −0.5° to 4.3°) after a one-year period, however, neither this observation, nor the interaction with age group or elevation angle was significant. These findings may indicate that pitchers could be at risk to develop shoulder injuries especially those that have been associated with scapular asymmetry.